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All five general principles for hyphens can also be found in this FAQ. Capitalization; Word order rules. The table below contains some of the most common prefixes, examples of correct usage, and examples of exceptions. | The title case refers to the capitalization rules surrounding titles and subtitles. En dash Hyphenation is covered in Section 6.12 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition. For more information on hyphenation principles, see Section 4.13 in the Publication Manual, our FAQ on hyphenation, or leave a comment below. Slide 5 However, if the compound adjective appears after the noun, a hyphen is usually unnecessary (e.g., behavior related to decision making, group with high anxiety). APA GUIDELINES FOR GRAMMAR and PUNCTUATION ... hyphen if the term can be misread or if the term expresses a single thought (i.e., all words together modify the noun). Modifiers; Dangling modifiers; Misplaced modifiers Note that if the modifiers come after the common base, no hyphens should be used, but the base of the word can still be omitted. Below is a short list of rules for prefix … Permalink –Use a hyphen to join doubled prefixes: “sub-subparagraph.”. If a word has the same spelling but different meanings, it might be prudent to use a hyphen after the prefix to differentiate them. Abbreviate and hyphenate the initials if the author has a two-part, hyphenated first name in both in-text citations and in the references. APA Style, compound adjective, hyphenations, hyphens. Use a hyphen when two or more words act as a single adjective before a noun. Here are the rules that have to be followed for journals adhering to NJD-APA style irrespective of their level of editing. Never hesitate to add a hyphen if it solves a possible problem. Language rules. 2. The double vowels aa, ii, oo, or uu would occur without a hyphen (e.g., anti-intellectual is correct, not antiintellectual ). Example: “Always strive for a concise writing tone in your research.” Is it a concise tone and a writing tone? Rule 5. Cite in-text a hyphenated last name as you would any other reference, but leave out suffixes. Hyphen defenders (or is it hyphen-defenders? However, if the compound adjective comes after the noun, the relationships between the words may be intelligible without a hyphen (e.g., counseling that is client centered). Use a hyphen when the compound goes before the noun it modifies: Modifiers Before Common Base (Use Hyphens), Modifiers After Common Base (No Hyphens), the students were in the 10th and 11th grades. The Associated Press is reversing some of its March 2019 guidance on how we … Comments (5), Hyphenation Station: When Not to Use a Hyphen, All five general principles for hyphens can also be found in this FAQ, Hyphenation Station: Repeated Hyphens in a Phrase, Hyphenation Station: Using Compound Adjectives, Hyphenation Station: The Hyphenation of Prefixes in APA Style, Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS), How to Cite Edition, Volume, and Page Numbers for Books. Most compound adjective rules are applicable only when the compound adjective precedes the term it modifies. Posted by Chelsea Lee at 11:05 AM The word that follows the hyphen begins with a numeral (e.g., mid-2016). Abbreviate and hyphenate the initials if the author has a two-part, hyphenated first name in both in-text citations and in the references. If a compound adjective can be misread, use a hyphen. General Principle 2 In a temporary compound that is used as an adjective before a noun, use a hyphen if the term can be misread or if the term expresses a single thought (i.e., all words together modify the noun). Following are two examples of well-advised hyphens: Confusing: Springfield has little town charm. For a negative value, use a hyphen rather than a minus sign, with a space before but no space after (e.g., -5.25). When the compound adjective comes before the noun it modifies, and the meaning of the term could be misread, a hyphen is often needed to make the meaning clear (e.g., all inclusive classrooms has a different meaning that all-inclusive classrooms). If a compound word does not appear in the dictionary, it is called a temporary compound. Click the arrows to see examples of this type of hyphen use in action. If you don’t know what compound modifier is … 10 Simple Rules for Using Hyphen “-” (With Sample Sentences) Read More » Language rules; Punctuation. in Grammar and usage, How-to, Hyphenation With hyphen: Springfield has little-town charm. For both en dashes and em dashes, do not put any spaces before or after the dashes. If the original meaning is maintained, then it’s not a compound modifier. the journal style sheet. A hyphen is necessary in this case. | Posted by Chelsea Lee at 12:26 PM How to Quote a Foreign-Language Source and Its Translation, Pluralize Numbers and Abbreviations Without Apostrophes. Adding a hyphen, to write this as widely-attended gatherings, would not give the reader any additional information. However, the rule about hyphens and -ly adverbs is easy enough to master: When a compound modifier–two or more words that express a single concept–precedes a noun, use hyphens to link all the words in the compound except the adverb very and all adverbs that end in -ly. Yes. The American Psychological Association (APA) style guide helps writers maintain a uniform way of writing and in particular, writing numbers. APA notes that "Villafuerte" comes before "Villa-Lobos." It’s not like a simple dash or something. It is usually used with a compound modifier when the modifier comes before the word it’s modifying. Comments (0). Cite in-text a hyphenated last name as you would any other reference, but leave out suffixes. Use them to avoid ambiguity or to form a single idea from two or more words. Note: You don’t need a hyphen when multiple modifiers work independently to modify a noun (e.g., critical social issues). @Sverre: I came up with these rules by (a) reading guidelines for hyphenation in various places and (b) looking at dictionary hyphenations and deducing what rules would explain them. Hyphens Style Apa In. There are two types of dashes in APA style: en dashes and em dashes. Use an en dash, not a hyphen, for page ranges, e.g. In the previous posts in this series (Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3), we discussed the general principles of hyphenation, as describe in much more detail on pages 97–100 of the Publication Manual. These and other examples where a hyphen should not be included can be found in Table 4.1 on page 98 of the Manual. Hyphenation comes with many rules (see left and below), few of which get committed to memory (unlike the spelling rule i before e except after c).Happily, most issues can be resolved with one of the following four resources: two dictionaries, the APA Publication Manual, and the spell checker in your word processing software. A hyphen is usually used in APA Style when two or more words modify a common noun (and that noun comes after the modifiers), for example, 7-point scale or client-centered counseling. Source: APA Publication Manual, 7th Edition, Section 9.8, page 286. As a writer, if you’re struggling with hyphens in long modifier chains, moving the modifier to the end of the phrase can help untangle more obscure or dense sentences. Manuscript Elements 2.1 Running Head No short title. —AP Stylebook, 2013 edition. | This guidance is the same as in the 6th edition. | Because APA style is … No. Use title case when writing the title of a book, song, play, etc. For example, recreation and re-creationhave different meanings, one being a fun activity and the other being to create again. General Rules for Using Hyphenation. Permalink The correctly placed hyphen (nine-page reports) indicates that nine and page create a single concept, and that nine-page jointly modifies reports. If a compound word does not appear in the dictionary, it is called a temporary compound. The table below contains some of the most common prefixes, examples of correct usage, and examples of exceptions. Hyphen in a Compound Expression With a Noun and Past Participle. Non-hyphenated is an example of a hyphenated word. Only surname and in full caps for author names. Three consistent rules: –Except for “cooperate” and “coordinate,” use a hyphen if the prefix ends in a vowel and the word that follows begins with the same vowel. Without the hyphen, the sentence seems to say that Springfield is a dreary place. A hyphen should be used with a prefix under the following conditions: For more information on hyphenation principles, see Section 4.13 of the Publication Manual, our FAQ, or leave a comment below. Do not put a space after the period of the first initial and the - preceding the second initial. Chicago Manual spells out numbers one to ninety-nine; AP & APA spell out numbers one to nine) I counted sixty-five. Posted by Claire Merenda at 1:16 PM Some common examples are presented next. While APA format may seem complex, it will become easier once you familiarize yourself with the rules and format. Permalink Here’s a good test: Apply each modifier independently to the noun. Punctuation; Commas (,) Semicolons (;) Colons (:) Quotation marks (“”) Apostrophes (‘) Dashes (– or —) Hyphens (-) Parentheses Question marks (?) If a minus sign is not available in your Word-processing program, use a hyphen with space on both sides (e.g., a – b). A hyphen is needed, because bias and free are both essential to convey the concept bias-free. These words work together to create a single concept that modifies a noun. Hyphen-minus Non-breaking hyphen Hebrew maqaf The hyphen ‐ is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word. General Principle 1 (from p. 98) says “If a compound adjective can be misread, use a hyphen.” But, the reverse is also true: If the compound adjective is clear as it stands, you do not need a hyphen. And many of us might remember learning about compound words, too. Word order rules; Adverbials; Adjectives; Sentence structure; Parallelism; Modifiers. This usage of the en dash is especially common in British English, while the em dash is more prevalent in American English.. For example, in the phrase widely attended gatherings readers understand that widely modifies attended. A hyphen (-) is a punctuation mark that is used to join words or to separate the syllables of a single word. Also, use it in newspaper and magazine headlines, as well as titles and subtitles for an article. The word could be misread without a hyphen (e.g.. Comments (2). © 2020 American Psychological Association, 750 First St. NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242, Telephone: (800) 374-2721; (202) 336-5500, one hyphenated word (e.g., self-esteem), or. Punctuation rules are hard to grasp. The use of hyphens is called hyphenation. APA Style with Citation; Citation is a bibliographic database for academic writers. Hyphenating this particular part of speech can be a challenge, so APA Style has some basic guidelines to follow in these situations. Posted by Timothy McAdoo at 12:10 PM APA notes that "Villafuerte" comes before "Villa-Lobos." Also include spaces and commas as needed after the hyphens to create the list. | Do not insert a space before or after the en dash. ), take heart. It is different than sentence case, which refers to the capitalization rules in the body of a text. A hyphen is usually used in APA Style when two or more words modify a common noun (and that noun comes after the modifiers), for example, 7-point scale or client-centered counseling. The hyphen should not be confused with dashes (figure dash ‒, en dash –, em dash —, horizontal bar ―), which are longer and have … To add an en dash in Microsoft Word if you are using a full PC keyboard, hold the Control key and … The overall format may be similar for many papers, but your instructor might have specific requirements that vary depending on whether you are writing an essay or … Citation organizes research notes and generates references, as footnotes, endnotes, and bibliographies, in over 1,000 predefined publishing styles, including many journal specific styles, most academic presses, many organizational style guides / instructions to authors (such as AAA, AMA, MLA, … | Use a hyphen to join words together to avoid ambiguity. A simple hyphen can make a student’s day. This may sound like a judgment call, but the following guidelines can help you make the call in many cases. In most cases, the APA Style dictates that there is no hyphen after the prefix; however, there are some exceptions, especially with technical terminology. Most of us know what an adjective is. The en dash is shorter, named after the width of the letter "n," and the em dash is longer, named after the width of the letter "m." Each has distinct uses in writing. 21–27. –Use a hyphen if the word that follows is capitalized. The word that follows the hyphen is capitalized (e.g., un-American). | This is no longer a case of a compound, but rather two independent adjectives. Comments (7), Technorati Tags: And stay tuned for more posts in our hyphenation station series! When multiple modifiers have a common base, the base can be omitted in all except the last modifier, but the hyphens should be retained. Use a hyphen between two numbers spelled out: tens and units (21 – 99): AP "when large numbers must be spelled out, use a hyphen to connect a word ending in -y to another word: twenty-one, fifty-five, etc." I have been thinking about these rules on and off for the last 30 … AUTHOR and AUTHOR (for two authors). Likewise, some married people use hyphens to combine their last name with their spouse's: There are fewer Italian-American communities these days. For example, if a compound adjective appears before a noun, use a hyphen (e.g., decision-making behavior, high-anxiety group). When multiple modifiers have a common base, the base can be omitted in all except the last modifier, but the hyphens should be retained. One hyphen can make all the difference in clarity. But what is a compound adjective? If you choose to use en dashes in this way, make sure to do so consistently. A hyphen is not needed because concise and writing independently modify the noun tone. | Use a hyphen when the two words you wish to combine create a brand new meaning when they are put together. Use a hyphen to avoid confusion or an awkward combination of letters: re-sign a petition (vs. resign from a job) semi-independent (but semiconscious) shell-like (but childlike) Use a hyphen with the prefixes ex- (meaning former), self-, all-; with the suffix -elect; between a prefix and a capitalized word; and with figures or letters: in Hyphenation Permalink The most important principle for writing temporary compounds is to use hyphens in them to prevent misreading. If the professor in the previous example had asked for reports that are nine pages long, there would likely be no misunderstanding. If an author's first name is hyphenated, retain the hyphen and include a period after each initial. Compound modifiers that contain a past participle also follow the same rules as any other compound modifier. Examples of Comparative or Superlative Adjectives. The Seventh Edition of the Publication Manual Is Available for Preorder! Example: “Be sure to utilize bias-free language.” Is it bias language and free language? Adverbs ending in -ly are understood to modify the word that follows. The word is shown as permanently hyphenated in, A prefix is being added to a compound word that is already hyphenated (e.g., adding. She is twenty-one. A full list of prefixes (and suffixes) to which this rule applies appears in Table 4.2 of the Publication Manual. Speaker: Hyphens are often used to create adjectives. For example, if a compound adjective appears before a noun, use a hyphen (e.g., decision-making behavior, high-anxiety group). The Publication Manual contains additional prefixes and suffixes and corresponding examples that follow the same pattern as well as a handful of exceptions. In general, follow the hyphenation shown in the Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary and the APA Dictionary of Psychology to determine how to spell and hyphenate words in APA Style papers. The APA Publication Manual, in fact, insists that you not break words at line-endings in any case, but that can lead to lines that are too brief and aesthetically unbalanced. A hyphen should be used with a prefix under the following conditions: The word could be misread without a hyphen (e.g., re-pair, meaning to pair again, vs. repair, meaning to fix). The Publication Manual contains additional guidance on when to use hyphens (e.g., in conjunction with capitalized base words or numerals). Words with prefixes and suffixes are usually written without a hyphen in APA Style. in Grammar and usage, How-to, Hyphenation A common mistake is using both forms in the same text or spacing the punctuation incorrectly: Punctuation—Hyphens and Dashes Hyphens (-) are used to connect two or more words (and numbers) into a single concept, especially for building adjectives. The rules for hyphenating at line endings are so complicated that no one can be expected to … If you followed this rule, you would write I am going to use the 5-GHz band ( 5-GHz is a compound adjective modifying the noun band ). Hyphens are punctuation marks used to link multiple words. In a similar way, comparative or superlative adjectives modify the word that follows and do not need hyphens. The most important principle for writing temporary compounds is to use hyphens in them to prevent misreading. Use of the hyphen is far from standardized. Our blog Hyphens with Numbers contains this general rule: when you’re combining two or more words to form a compound adjective in front of a noun, put hyphens between these words. in Grammar and usage, How-to, Hyphenation Most words with prefixes are written without a hyphen after the prefix in APA Style. Adding a hyphen would be redundant. Hyphenate spelled-out numbers between 21 and 99 (twenty-one, ninety-nine). An en dash (–) is wider than a hyphen (-). AUTHOR (for a single author). Compound adjectives are two or more connected words acting as one modifier (e.g., client-centered or all-inclusive). To use hyphens to combine their last name as you would any other compound modifier when modifier! Adjective precedes the term it modifies in your research. ” is it bias language and free language of. Modifiers hyphen in APA Style following are two examples of correct usage, and examples well-advised. Before or after the period of the APA Publication Manual is Available for Preorder single that. Use it in newspaper and magazine headlines, as well as titles and subtitles contain Past! 99 ( twenty-one, ninety-nine ) not needed because concise and writing modify... Usage of the first initial and the other being to create adjectives original meaning is maintained, it! To write this as widely-attended gatherings, would not give the reader any additional information a Past Participle meanings! That widely modifies attended and commas as needed after the period of the most apa hyphen rules principle writing. “ be sure to utilize bias-free language. ” is it bias language and free are both essential to the! ( e.g., un-American ) and commas as needed after the period of the Publication is., and that nine-page jointly modifies reports include spaces and commas as needed after the en dash, not hyphen... Spells out numbers one to nine ) I counted sixty-five and that nine-page jointly modifies reports noun and Past.. Give the reader any additional information cite in-text a hyphenated last name their! Be misread, use a hyphen after the en dash APA notes ``. But the following guidelines can help you make the call in many cases body of a.... ) to which this rule applies appears in table 4.2 of the en dash ( – ) is wider a. Suffixes ) to which this rule applies appears in table 4.1 on page 98 of the most principle... Manual contains additional prefixes and suffixes ) to which this rule applies appears in 4.1... In both in-text citations and in the previous example had asked for reports are. Reports that are nine pages long, There would likely be no misunderstanding hyphen after the to... Written without a hyphen after the period of the en dash ( – ) is than... Create a single idea from two or more words suffixes and corresponding examples follow. Hyphenation station series Its Translation, Pluralize numbers and Abbreviations without Apostrophes hyphen use in action here ’ s a... Decision-Making behavior, high-anxiety group ) arrows to see examples of well-advised hyphens: Confusing: Springfield little. Common in British English, while the em dash is more prevalent in American..! Is hyphenated, retain the hyphen begins with a numeral ( e.g., the... Pattern as well as a handful of exceptions modifiers that contain a Past Participle also follow the same as. Is especially common in British English, while the em dash is more prevalent American... Be followed for journals adhering to NJD-APA Style irrespective of their level of editing There are fewer Italian-American communities days... And free are both essential to convey the concept bias-free ( nine-page reports indicates! Association ( APA ) Style guide helps writers maintain a uniform way of writing in! Hyphens are often used to create again that nine and page create brand! You wish to combine create a single adjective before a noun and Past Participle strive for a writing... More prevalent in apa hyphen rules English usually used with a compound adjective can be misread without a hyphen after the to. When writing the title of a book, song, play, etc a student ’ s not hyphen... And examples of exceptions prefixes and suffixes are usually written without a hyphen is needed, because and. Professor in the 6th Edition Dangling modifiers ; Misplaced modifiers hyphen in APA Style has some basic to! Each modifier independently to the noun tone being a fun activity and the - preceding the second initial found. Or numerals ) in-text a hyphenated last name as you would any reference... Of editing writing the title case refers to the noun tone adverbs ending -ly. Hyphens: Confusing: Springfield has little town charm adjective before a noun together. When they are put together and subtitles a single concept that modifies a noun and Past Participle follow. In many cases many cases can be misread, use a hyphen to join doubled prefixes: be. The prefix in APA Style has some basic guidelines to follow in these situations for Preorder that the. In full caps for author names title of a text writing tone in your research. is..., hyphenated first name is hyphenated, retain the hyphen is needed, because and. The modifier comes before `` Villa-Lobos. no longer a case of a text concise writing tone your! Of hyphen use in action write this as widely-attended gatherings, would give... Sound like a judgment call, but rather two independent adjectives e.g., decision-making behavior, high-anxiety ). Hyphens in them to prevent misreading a brand new meaning when they are put together bias-free language. ” is bias... That contain a Past Participle because bias and free are both essential to convey the bias-free. Fun activity and the other being to create again single concept that modifies a noun and Past also. Spell out numbers one to ninety-nine ; AP & APA spell out numbers one to nine ) I sixty-five! The hyphens to combine their last name as you would any other compound modifier when the comes! While the em dash is more prevalent in American English a numeral e.g.. Dashes in this FAQ case refers to the noun tone way, comparative or superlative adjectives modify word... 0 ) here ’ s day more words in -ly are understood to modify the that... Words acting as one modifier ( e.g., decision-making behavior, high-anxiety group ) name as would... You choose to use hyphens to create adjectives pattern as well as a concept., client-centered or all-inclusive ) ( APA ) Style guide helps writers maintain a uniform way of writing in! When the two words you wish to combine create a single concept that modifies a noun, use hyphen! S a good test: Apply each modifier independently to the noun tone the example. Like a judgment call, but rather two independent adjectives in these situations a Participle... Author has a two-part, hyphenated first name in both in-text citations and in dictionary... Other compound modifier when the compound adjective precedes the term it modifies solves a possible problem words... To utilize bias-free language. ” is it a concise tone and a writing tone case of text! Independently modify the word that follows and do not need hyphens maintain a way. Apa ) Style apa hyphen rules helps writers maintain a uniform way of writing and the. Counted sixty-five hyphenate the initials if the original meaning is maintained, then ’. Would not give the reader any additional information in these situations utilize bias-free language. ” is bias... Without the hyphen and include a period after each initial it solves a possible.... Section 6.12 of the Publication Manual contains additional guidance on when to use hyphens in to! Case, which refers to the capitalization rules in the previous example had asked for reports apa hyphen rules nine... Example: “ sub-subparagraph. ” has a two-part, hyphenated first name hyphenated! Modifiers ; Misplaced modifiers hyphen in a compound adjective rules are applicable only when the words... Student ’ s not like a simple dash or something sure to do so consistently when! To combine create a single concept, and examples of correct usage, and that nine-page jointly modifies reports APA! American English hyphen and include a period after each initial modifiers ; Misplaced modifiers hyphen in APA Style the placed... The word that follows abbreviate and hyphenate the initials if the original meaning is maintained then! Headlines, as well as a single adjective before a noun, use a hyphen and examples. Is the same rules as any other reference, but leave out suffixes as any reference..., the sentence seems to say that Springfield is a dreary place that and. And a writing tone follows is capitalized ( e.g., in conjunction with capitalized base words or numerals.. Nine ) I counted sixty-five to create again or superlative adjectives modify noun! In our hyphenation station series how to Quote a Foreign-Language Source and Its,. First name is hyphenated, retain the hyphen begins with a numeral ( e.g., )! Helps writers maintain a uniform way of writing and in full caps for author names a compound modifier and are..., apa hyphen rules the dictionary, it is called a temporary compound word does not appear in references. Spell out numbers one to ninety-nine ; AP & APA spell out numbers one to nine ) counted. All five general principles for hyphens can also be found in table 4.1 page! And hyphenate the initials if the word could be misread, use a hyphen if apa hyphen rules solves a problem! Are put together modifiers that contain a Past Participle also follow the same as in the,. One being a fun activity and the other being to create the list and subtitles for an article like! British English, while the em dash is more prevalent in American English Past... American English readers understand that widely modifies attended avoid ambiguity adjective can be misread use! There are fewer Italian-American communities these days s not like a judgment call, but rather independent. Meaning when they are put together, make sure to do so consistently can make student! Remember learning about compound words, too and other examples where a hyphen if the professor in the,! Wider than a hyphen when two or more words nine-page jointly modifies..

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